Ductile iron pipes are often made by centrifugally spinning molten iron in high-quality steel molds, whereas fittings are made in static molds. Small amounts of magnesium are added to the iron to convert the lamellar form of carbon into a spheroidal form, boosting tensile strength and ductility. Then, ductile iron pipes with socket and spigot ends for constructing push fit type joints, plain ends for jointing with flexible couplings, or flanged ends created by welding on ductile iron flanges complying with BS EN 1092-2 are available in diameters up to DN 1600. Look for ductile iron pipe malaysia.
Pipes with diameters greater than DN 2000 are produced, although not with push-fit joints. The diameter of the pipe, the type of ends required, and where the pipe is constructed all influence standard lengths. Standard lengths for socket and spigot ended pipes in the United Kingdom are 5.5 m for DN 800 and bigger, and 8 m for DN 900 and larger. Plate 27(a) depicts the installation of DI pipe.
For pipes and fittings, BS EN 545 specifies that the wall thickness, e in mm, must meet the formula:
Ductile Iron Pipes are Made of:
When it comes to pipe sizes, the iron pipe size (IPS) is the first to appear on the industry chronology. However, as copper tubing has become more popular over time, another industry standard has surfaced: copper tube sizes (CTS).
IPS is widely used in general plumbing and industrial applications, and is generally available in stainless steel, carbon steel, and CPVC (often over 2″). Meanwhile, CTS is a plumbing and potable water system that is generally available in copper, CPVC (often under 2″), and PEX.
IPS, CTS, and in certain circumstances both are used to determine the dimensions of pipes constructed from specific materials.
This, however, barely scrapes the surface of the differences between these two industry best practices. Here’s a deeper look at what distinguishes each.
What Are the Differences Between IPS and CTS?
The best way to begin this discussion is with some background information about IPS. IPS used to be a wrought iron pipe-only standard. Because iron pipe was created by welding two pieces of pipe together in the early nineteenth century, this was regulated by the inner diameter. Today’s methods include cold working the pipe and welding the rolled sheet, or extruding seamless pipe using a mandrel.
The outer diameter is the key difference between IPS and CTS. CTS used to be governed by outer diameter (OD), which means the outside diameter is really the nominal diameter + 1/8″. The 1/8″ stemmed from the fact that copper tubing at the time had a double standard thickness (1/16″ times 2), hence a 2″ pipe was always 2.125″ in diameter. Inside diameter (ID) was previously used to manage IPS; however, owing to advancements in technology and piping manufacture, a new technique was needed to match fittings and piping together. When nominal pipe size (NPS) virtually replaced IPS, it also became an OD-controlled number based on ASME B36.10. As a result, the diameter differs from the diameter size.